Afternoon, 2007, oil on canvas

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This essay will explore the similarities and the differences between the texts of the Dead Sea Scrolls, being the Community Rule (1QS) and the Damascus Document (CD), and posit implications for the historical environment of the documents.


The 1QS scroll was found in a desert cave at Qumran in 1948. It contains the rules for a religious community that occupied the site from around the late second century BCE to the middle of the first century CE. The CD is a scroll found in the late nineteenth century in a synagogue in Cairo and is a medieval copy of scrolls also found at the Qumran site. The two texts show remarkable similarities in their intent but appear quite different in the theological method and the lifestyle of the two communities that they describe. It will be argued that the two texts have fundamental similarities which show that the CD…

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This essay attempts to describe the role of semantics in the study of linguistics, its ability to reveal the connection between cultures, and its ability to describe human experience. Contemporary studies of semantics are also done through cognitive experiments that use imaging technologies. However, the study of semantics may be constrained by the huge variation in word meaning across cultures. The future of semantics lies in explaining such variational discrepancies and accounting for them.

What are semantics?

Expressing and communicating meaning is essentially the function of human language (Goddard 2011). Meaning is the knowledge acquired by the human brain through experience which is represented symbolically in language. The relationship between the knowledge acquired about an experience and the words used to describe them are known as semantics (Binder et al., 2009). Semantics is a core field of linguistics and is crucial in the attempt to describe and account…

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January 2015 010

J.E. Thomas (2014), “Nothing can surprise me now, nothing can astonish or alarm me now…”

January 2015 009

J. E. Thomas, 2014, “All is asleep…”


May 2015 008

J.E. Thomas, 2014, “Like the grieving sea, the human race weeps incessantly and a tear is the lens of eternity…”


The sun passes over 009.JPG

J. E. Thomas, 2015, “The sun passes over and warms the Earth…”


December 2015 005

J. E. Thomas, 2015, “Can you forget what happened before?”


march 2015 003

J. E. Thomas, 2016, “Who are you? Where did you live? How old were you when the blood bent warlord laid waste to your land?”

July 2016 016


J. E. Thomas, 2016, “Things change we never know why- with the zigzag speed of a long- winged fly…”


The Captives, 2010, egg tempera, pigment and mixed media on board

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Nicholas Georgouras, “UM”, Greek Pentelikon Marble, 110 x 55 x 55 cm


The rills and gullies and saddleback hills are sleeping now,

the talus slopes of the mountain are asleep,

and the low scrub thickets, and the riverine glades.

Sleep gathers in the sound of the water’s fall,

in the trade winds riffling the coral shoals;

and all four-footed creatures the black earth breeds-

the race of bees, the gathering tribe of broad-winged birds,

the monsters plundering the bloodshot sea-

all are asleep in the depthless conjuring of that sound.


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The modern state, which was born from the Peace of Westphalia of 1648, gave unrestricted control of the state to its rulers. This was the beginning of the concept of state sovereignty which is stil…

Source: Why the concept of the sovereign state should end


Nicholas Georgouras, 2005, Carrara marble, 250cm x 100cm

“We do not inherit the earth from our ancestors, we borrow it from our children.”

Native American proverb

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Sorrell and Hendry define a narrow code of ethics within business as that which is restrained only to its employees or shareholders[1]. A broad code of ethics is that which includes responsibilities to the wider community and environment[2]. Although most codes of ethics define responsibilities to communities, some businesses find that their particular responsibilities to the pursuit of profit for shareholders constrain and conflict with these policy objectives[3]. However, businesses operate in and rely upon the communities where they are situated. The people within these communities expect to be treated equally and fairly by governments and businesses. This essay will argue that a broad code of ethics is needed in the application of inclusive principles, such as the concepts of equal opportunity and affirmative action, and that such inclusive principles can benefit the businesses that apply them.

The expectations and ideals of equality do…

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